AXENFELD, ISRAEL


AXENFELD, ISRAEL
AXENFELD, ISRAEL (1787–1866), pioneering Yiddish novelist and dramatist. He was born in Nemirov and was originally a follower of the ḥasidic rabbi Naḥman\>\> of Bratslav, in Podolia, Ukraine, but after traveling through Germany as a supplier of the Russian Army in 1812–13 and coming into contact with the early maskilim of Brody, Galicia, Axenfeld became staunchly anti-ḥasidic. In 1824 he settled in Odessa as merchant and attorney. Two years before his death he moved to Paris, to join his sons, Auguste Alexander (1825–76), professor of internal pathology at the Sorbonne, and Henri, a painter who frequently exhibited in Paris and London. Axenfeld completed 30 novels and plays in which he portrayed Jewish life according to a realist esthetic (analyzed by Dan Miron). In the cause of Enlightenment, he satirized ḥasidic beliefs, ridiculed ḥasidic rabbis, and sought to improve his readers' manners, etiquette, and morals. He contrasted Jewish life in Poland and the Ukraine with "civilized" life in Western Europe, often exaggerating the backwardness of the shtetl. Though his characters are alive and convincing, his plots are often melodramatic. The only two printing presses then allowed in Russia refused to publish his works because of their anti-ḥasidic bias; they were therefore circulated in manuscript form. Only his novel Dos Shterntikhl ("The Head-Band," 1861) and the drama Der Ershter Yidisher Rekrut ("The First Jewish Recruit," 1861) appeared during his lifetime. The latter deals with the confusion caused by the Czar's edict to draft Jews for the army. A modernized version by Aaron Kushnirov was staged in the 1930s in Russia, Poland, and the U.S.A. His plays Man un Vayb ("Husband and Wife") and Di Genarte Velt ("The Foolish World"), and his story Noch Tsvey Hozn ("Two More Hares," retranslated by L. Reznik from the Russian) appeared posthumously. The rest of his valuable writings have disappeared. Whatever was extant was reprinted in two volumes (1, Kiev, 1931; 2, Moscow, 1938). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: LNYL, 1 (1956), 159–63; Z. Rejzen, Fun Mendelssohn biz Mendele (1923), 355–418; M. Wiener, in: I. Axenfelds Verk, 1 (1931), v–xvi, 3–142; S. Niger, Dertseylers un Romanistn, 1 (1946), 52–60; I. Zinberg, Geshikhte fun der Literatur bay Yidn, 8:2 (1937), 172–202. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Wiener, in: Tsu der Geshikhte fun der Yidisher Literatur in 19stn Yorhundert (1945), 65–204; D. Miron, A Traveler Disguised (1973, 19962). (Elias Schulman)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Axenfeld, Israel — (1787 1866)    Russian Yiddish writer. He was born in Nemirov. He originally was a follower of Nahman of Bratzlav, but after contact with the maskilim, he became anti Hasidic. He wrote 30 novels and plays which satirize Hasidic life …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Axenfeld — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Auguste Axenfeld (1825–1876), Arzt und Maler Edith Picht Axenfeld (1914–2001), deutsche Cembalistin und Pianistin Henry Axenfeld, ukrainisch französischer Maler Israel Axenfeld (1787–1866), jiddischer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Israel Aksenfeld — (auch: Israel Axenfeld; * 1787 in Nemirow; † 1866 in Paris) war neben Salomon Ettinger einer der ersten jiddischen weltlichen Schriftsteller des 19. Jahrhunderts und einer der bedeutendsten jiddischen Schriftsteller der Epoche vor Mendele Moicher …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Auguste Axenfeld — (* 25. Oktober 1825 in Odessa; † 25. August 1876 in Paris) war ein ukrainisch französischer Arzt. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werk 3 Quellen 4 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Heinrich Axenfeld — Auguste Axenfeld Auguste Axenfeld (25 octobre 1825, Odessa 25 août 1876, Paris) fut un médecin français. Fils d Israel Aksenfeld. Après des études secondaires à Odessa, vint à Paris faire ses études de médecine. Reçu docteur en médecine à la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Auguste Axenfeld — (25 octobre 1825, Odessa 25 août 1876, Paris) fut un médecin français. Fils d Israel Aksenfeld. Après des études secondaires à Odessa, vint à Paris faire ses études de médecine. Reçu docteur en médecine à la Sorbonne ; sa …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Aksenfeld — Axenfeld ist der Name von Auguste Axenfeld (1825 1876), Arzt und Maler Edith Picht Axenfeld (1914 2001), deutsche Cembalistin und Pianistin Israel Aksenfeld (auch: Israel Axenfeld; 1787–1866), jiddischer Schriftsteller Theodor Axenfeld… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • THEATER — origins post biblical period FROM 1600 TO THE 20TH CENTURY england france germany italy holland russia united states jews in the musical the jew as entertainer yiddish theater premodern performance in yiddish haskalah drama broder singers the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Liste der deutschen Botschafter — Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Ranghöchste Vertreter bei Völkerrechtssubjekten 1.1 Ständige Vertretung bei der Europaische Union Europäischen Union (früher EG), Brüssel …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Projet:Médecine/Index — Articles 0 9 1,2 dibromo 3 chloropropane · 112 (numéro d urgence européen) · 1935 en santé et médecine · 1941 en santé et médecine · 1er régiment médical · 2 iodothyronine déiodinase · 2,4,6 trichlorophénol · 2005 en santé et médecine · 2006 en… …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.